Lee Becker (2012), DISCUSS: Toward a Domain Independent Representation of Dialogue, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado Boulder [abstract] [PDF]

Journal, Conference and Workshop Papers

Scott Hellman, William Murray, Adam Wiemerslage,  Mark Rosenstein, Peter Foltz, Lee Becker, Marcia Derr, Multiple Instance Learning for Content Feedback Localization without Annotation (2020), Proceedings of the Fifteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications. [PDF]

Scott Hellman, Mark Rosenstein, Andrew Gorman, William Murray, Lee Becker, Alok Baikadi, Jill Budden, Peter Foltz,  Scaling Up Writing in the Curriculum: Batch Mode Active Learning for Automated Essay Scoring (2019), Accepted to ACM Conference on Learning @ Scale (L@S) 2020. [PDF]

Alok Baikadi, Lee Becker, Jill Budden, Peter Foltz, Andrew Gorman, Scott Hellman, William Murray, Mark Rosenstein, An apprenticeship model for human and AI collaborative essay grading (2019), Accepted to User Interfaces for Building Knowledge an ACM IUI 2019 Workshop. [PDF]

Dmitriy Dligach, Steven Bethard, Lee Becker, Timothy Miller, Guergana K. Savova (2013), Discovering body site and severity modifiers in clinical texts, Journal of American Informatics Association (JAMIA), October 2013. [PDF]

Lee Becker, George Erhart, David Skiba, Valentine Matula (2013), AVAYA: Sentiment Analysis on Twitter with Self-Training and Polarity Lexicon Expansion, Accepted to SemEval 2013 – Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2013), in conjunction with the Second Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2013), Atlanta, Georgia, June 2013. [PDF] [Resources][BIB]

Stephen T. Wu, Vinod C. Kaggal, Dmitriy Dligach, James J. Masanz, Pei Chen, Lee Becker, Wendy W. Chapman, Guergana K. Savova, Hongfang Liu and Christopher G. Chute (2013), A common type system for clinical natural language processing, Journal of Biomedical Semantics, Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2013. [PDF]

Lee Becker, Martha Palmer, Sarel van Vuuren, Wayne Ward (2012), Learning to Tutor Like a Tutor: Question Ranking in Context, Accepted to ITS 2012 – The 11th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Chania, Greece, June 2012.

Lee Becker, Sumit Basu, Lucy Vanderwende (2012), Mind the Gap: Learning to Choose Gaps for Question Generation , Accepted to NAACL:HLT 2012 – The 2012 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Montreal, Canada, June 2012. [PDF]

Lee Becker, Martha Palmer, Sarel van Vuuren, Wayne Ward (2012) Question Ranking and Selection in Tutorial Dialogues, Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop on Building Educational Applications Using NLP, Montreal, Canada, June 2012 [PDF]

Caleb Phillips, Lee Becker, Elizabeth Bradley (2012), STRANGE BETA: An assistance system for indoor rock climbing route setting, Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Systems, 22, 2012 [PDF]

Lee Becker, Martha Palmer, Sarel van Vuuren, Wayne Ward (2011), Evaluating Questions in Context, Accepted to the AAAI Fall 2001 Symposium on Question Generation, Arlington, Virginia, November 4-6, 2011 [PDF]

Caleb Phillips, Lee Becker, and Elizabeth Bradley, (2011), Strange Beta: An Assistance System for Indoor Rock Climbing Route Setting Using Chaotic Variations and Machine Learning. University of Colorado at Boulder, Tech. Report CU-CS-1088-11. October, 2011 [PDF]

Wayne Ward, Ronald Cole, Daniel Bolaños, Cindy Buchenroth-Martin, Edward Svirsky, Sarel van Vuuren, Timothy Weston, Jing Zheng, Lee Becker, (2011), My Science Tutor: A Conversational Multimedia Virtual Tutor for Elementary School Science, ACM Transactions on Speech and Language Processing (TSLP), Volume 7, Issue 4, August 2011 [PDF]

Lee Becker, Wayne H. Ward, Sarel van Vuuren, Martha Palmer (2011), DISCUSS: A dialogue move taxonomy layered over semantic representations, Accepted to the 9th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS2011), Oxford, England, January 12-14, 2011.[PDF][BIB]

Lee Becker, Rodney D. Nielsen, Ifeyinwa Okoye, Tamara Sumner, Wayne H. Ward (2010), What’s next? Target Concept Identification, Accepted to the 3rd Workshop on Question Generation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 14, 2010. [PDF][Slides][BIB]

Lee Becker, Rodney D. Nielsen, and Wayne Ward (2009), What a pilot study says about running a question generation challenge, Accepted to The 2nd Workshop on Question Generation, Brighton, England, July 6-7. 2009. [PDF] [Slides][BIB]

Rodney D. Nielsen, Lee Becker and Wayne Ward (2008), TAC 2008 CLEAR RTE System Report: Facet-based Entailment, In Proceedings of the Text Analysis Conference, Gaithersburg, Maryland, November 17-19, 2008. National Institute of Standards and Technology. [PDF][BIB]


Sumit Basu, Lucy Vanderwende, Lee Becker, Adaptively Presenting Content Based on User Knowledge, US Patent 20130157245, June 2013.

Lee Becker, Wayne H. Ward, Sarel Van Vuuren, DISCUSS: Enabling Detailed Characterization of Tutorial Interactions Through Dialogue Annotation, Accepted as a Poster to EDM 2011, the 3rd International Conference on Educational Data Mining, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 11, 2010.[BIB]

Lee Becker, Planning, Optimizing, and Tagging: Three Approaches to Dialogue Management, PhD Preliminary Exam, October 2009. [PDF][Slides]

Zachary Smith, Lee Becker, and David Heckman, Random code generation using genetic algorithms, US Patent 6918098, July 2005.